[Vision2020] Wikipedia-Mining Algorithm Reveals World’s Most Influential Universities
kmmos1 at frontier.com
Tue Dec 8 20:46:44 PST 2015
Wikipedia-Mining Algorithm Reveals World’s Most Influential Universities
*An algorithm’s list of the most influential universities contains some
Where are the world’s most influential universities? That’s a question
that increasingly dominates the way the public, governments, and funding
agencies think about research and higher education.
The problem, of course, is that it’s hard to produce an objective
ranking of almost anything, let alone universities. Cultural,
historical, and geographical factors can all influence these rankings in
ways that are hard to quantify.
So an independent way of producing a ranking that avoids these
controversies would be widely welcomed.
Today, we get such a ranking thanks to the work of Jose Lages at the
University of Franche-Comte in France and a few pals. They’ve used the
way universities are mentioned on Wikipedia to produce a world ranking.
Their results provide a new way to think about rankings that may help to
avoid some of the biases that can occur in other ranking systems.
Biases can crop up remarkably easily. For example, in the last century,
English has become the /de facto/ language of science, and the advantage
this gives English-speaking countries is hard to quantify.
And there are other factors that are unique to university rankings. Some
institutions focus more on teaching than on research—how should these
factors be balanced?
The new work attempts to get around some of these problems using the
Pagerank algorithm that Google famously uses to rank websites in search
results. This uses the network of links between nodes on a network to
determine those that are the most important.
The key insight is that the algorithm counts a node as important if
other important nodes point to it. So it repeatedly works through the
links, recalculating the importance of every node on each iteration, to
come up with a ranking.
Exactly this process can be applied to Wikipedia articles. Each
university mentioned in an article is a node in the network, and the
links pointing toward it are used to determine a ranking (see also
“Artificial Intelligence Aims to Make Wikipedia Friendlier and Better
Lages and co apply this process to 24 different language editions of
Wikipedia. This database contains some four million articles in English,
1.5 million in German and around a million in each of French, Dutch,
Italian, Spanish, and Russian. It also includes Chinese, Hebrew,
Hungarian, and so on. “These 24 languages cover 59% of world population
and 68% of the total number of Wikipedia articles in all 287 languages,”
The team first determines a ranking for each language and point out that
each language edition tends to favor its own universities. So the top
100 list in French includes 32 French-speaking universities, the top 100
in German includes 63 German-speaking universities, and so on.
They then combine the lists to produce a global ranking. The top 20 most
influential universities ranked in this way are:
1. University of Cambridge U.K.
2. University of Oxford U.K.
3. Harvard University U.S.
4. Columbia University U.S.
5. Princeton University U.S.
6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology U.S.
7. University of Chicago U.S.
8. Stanford University U.S.
9. Yale University U.S.
10 University of California, Berkeley U.S.
11. Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
12. Cornell University U.S.
13. University of Pennsylvania U.S.
14. University of London U.K.
15. Uppsala University Sweden
16. University of Edinburgh U.K.
17. Heidelberg University Germany
18. University of California, Los Angeles U.S.
19. New York University U.S.
20. University of Michigan U.S.
The full 100 are at:
There are many familiar names on this list but there are also some
interesting differences with conventional rankings. Perhaps the most
influential of these rankings is the Academic Ranking of World
Universities compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University since 2003.
The top 20 from this ranking (from 2013, when the Wikipedia database was
compiled) are these:
1. Harvard University U.S.
2. Stanford University U.S.
3. University of California, Berkeley U.S.
4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology U.S.
5. University of Cambridge U.K.
6. California Institute of Technology U.S.
7, Princeton University U.S.
8. Columbia University U.S.
9. University of Chicago U.S.
10. University of Oxford U.K.
11. Yale University U.S.
12. University of California, Los Angeles U.S.
13. Cornell University U.S.
14. University of California, San Diego U.S.
15. University of Pennsylvania U.S.
16. University of Washington U.S.
17. The Johns Hopkins University U.S.
18. University of California, San Francisco U.S.
19. University of Wisconsin, Madison U.S.
20. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland
Lages and co make some interesting observations. For a start, they point
out that the Wikipedia list tends to favor older universities that have
had a greater cultural impact. For example, Humboldt University of
Berlin is ranked 11 on the Wikipedia list but does not appear in the top
100 of the conventional ranking, surprising for an institution that has
educated 29 Nobel Prize winners. The inclusion in the new ranking is
perhaps because of the greater cultural and historical importance of
this university in the arts and humanities rather than sciences.
The diversity of countries is greater in the Wikipedia list, including
universities from Africa such as Al-Azhar University in Egypt, for
example. Japanese and Indian universities are more prominent. Germany is
the second highest ranked country after the U.S. and followed by the U.K.
By contrast, the conventional list ranks the U.S. most highly followed
by the U.K. and then Australia. In general, U.S. universities are less
prominent in the new ranking, accounting for 38 percent of the total. By
contrast, more than half the universities in the conventional ranking
are from the U.S.
The new ranking isn’t perfect, of course. It lists the University of
London at 14although this institution is actually comprised of several
institutions such as University College London and Kings College London,
which have their own separate listings.
The database does not include languages such as Ukrainian, which almost
certainly introduces other biases. And Wikipedia articles are open to
abuse, which may allow future rankings to be influenced by nefarious
Nevertheless, the new ranking has some merit as an objective approach.
While universities generally play down the significance of these kinds
of rankings, these lists can have a significant influence over funding.
The French strategy toward higher education and research, in particular,
is thought to have been significantly influenced by the Shanghai
rankings (which may also explain the interest of the authors in this topic).
Of course, the Wikipedia ranking is unlikely to replace conventional
rankings—there are significant vested interests at work. However, it
provides a new way to analyze the current state of affairs and should
add to the debate in a useful way.
Ref: http://arxiv.org/abs/1511.09021: Wikipedia Ranking of World
P.S.: UW at 55, WSU at 752
P.P.S.: Moscow State outranks Boise State by 25 to 989, which is great
for the Moscow in Russia.
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